Organic Masquerades- B12 Deficiency mimicking Schizophrenia or Depression

21 Jul

Vitamin B12 deficiency is known to cause Neuropsychiatric symptoms, however in some instances, the presentation is purely Psychiatric without obvious Neurological symptoms.
The presence of an atypical psychosis and/or with cognitive loss,or Psychiatric symptoms in a Vegetarian,should prompt further investigations.
These symptoms can easily be misdiagnosed as Schizophrenia or Depression if the physician is not alert regarding possible “organic” causes.

The below studies highlight Vitamin B12 deficiency and behavioural symptoms.

Terms used in Neuropsychology

13 Jul

acquired alexia-
loss of reading ability in a previously literate person

loss of ability to recognize objects, persons, sounds, shapes, or smells in spite of intact…

allocentric neglect-
consistent processing errors on one side of individual stimuli (either right or left) ….

General term for loss of memory.

angular gyrus-
a region of cortex on the temporal/parietal border roughly equivalent to Brodmann’s area 39….

inability to name objects or items

A condition in which a person who suffers impairment following brain damage seems unaware of the neurological deficits (lacking insight)..

anterior cingulate-
A midline frontal

Antegrade amnesia-
a form of memory loss where new events are not stored in long-term memory

deficit in the production and/or comprehension of language

the inability to carry out certain motor acts on instruction without evident loss of muscle…

Arborial structure-
the branching pattern of neuronal dendrites

Arcuate fasciculus-
fibre bundle connecting Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas in the brain

an agnosic condition in which objects cannot be recognized by touch alone.

long, thin projection from a neuron that carries electrical impulses from the cell body

the lower part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord

Brodmann area-
a region of the cortex defined on the basis of cytoarchitecture

a region at the basis of the brain that is important in sensory and motor functions

Cerebral cortex-
the outer surface of the brain which has, in higher mammals, a creased and bumpy….

Conduction aphasia-
aphasia in which the principal deficit is an inability to repeat spoken word

sudden loss of function in a region of the brain connected to, but at a distance from, a damaged…

the general term for a group of disorders thought to be caused by damage to a pathway between.

in the nervous system, the principle that because axons may branch many times, a single..

Egocentric neglect-
consistent errors to one side of the viewer (right or left)

the term for a group of neurological disorders characterized by synchronized by excessive neuronal…

the term associated with Lashley, broadly meaning that any region of cortex can assume responsibility…

the process causing neuronal death

Fluent aphasia-
another name for Wernicke’s aphasia. Language is fluent but nonsensical

elongated bumps (convexities) in the cortex (singular: gyrus)

partial or complete loss of movement in one side of the body

Autoimmune Schizophrenia

13 Jul

Schizophrenia shares many similarities with Autoimmune disorders,such as low Vitamin D levels,and autoantibodies to the brain have been found in some people who have previously received a diagnosis of Schizophrenia.
Unfortunately,these findings are not well known,neither to lay people or medical practitioners, including Immunologists,possibly due to the stigma of Schizophrenia producing a disinterest in research into this illness and a disbelief that there could be an organic (physical) cause to an illness that produces such severe brain and behavioural symptoms.
The below list of blogs have interesting information regarding Schizophoenia as an Autoimmune Disease in some people.

B12 deficiency and Psychiatric and Neurological disorders

1 Jul

Chris Kresser has written a great article on the connection between Vitamin B12 deficiency and Neurological and Mental Illnesses…

Patient Advocacy services for difficult communicating with Doctors

30 Jun

Mant people have had bad experiences with doctors that are rude or waste their time.
To counter this problem in the Healthcare system, Victorian patients are increasingly using Patient Advocate services to help with communicating with G.P’s.

Herpes medicine (antivirals) may help treat Bipolar Disorder

30 Jun

The connections between viruses and Psychiatric symptoms keep growing.

Brain Scans could become EKG’s for Mental Disorders

29 Jun


If EKGs can detect potential problems in heart function, then doctors are asking why brain scans can’t be used in the same way, to identify disorders like depression, autism or schizophrenia.

Doctors have long relied on electrocardiograms (EKGs) to track the electrical activity of the heart, and find any potential aberrations in the normal pattern of blips and valleys that could indicate distress. It’s not invasive, not that expensive, and for the patient, only involves getting hooked up to a few leads with patches on the chest.

Now researchers say that a similarly patient-friendly technique could scour brain activity for signs of trouble. The idea is to look for any changes in the normal ‘resting state’ of multiple brain regions recorded by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) machines. And so far, promising evidence suggests that it may be possible to detect when communication between these regions is out of sync, or otherwise different from the norm. Even more encouraging, say scientists, various mental disorders, such as depression and autism, may involve different aberrant patterns of activity, providing a type of visual fingerprint for the condition. Finding such signatures could not only lead to better diagnosis of certain neurological or developmental diseases but also track how well patients respond to treatment.

And—just as with a standard EKG test—all the patient has to do is lie still. “With resting state fMRI they just have to hold still for eight minutes in the scanner,” says Dr. Michael Greicius, medical director of the Stanford Center for Memory Disorders. “That’s the main practical advantage.”

Article cont:

Online treatment for Depression and Anxiety

29 Jun

Lately,a few new programmes (linked below) have been developed offering online cognitive treatments for Mental Health Disorders.
These programmes are attractive due to being cost effective and bypassing often long waiting times to see a Psychologist.
So,do you think online treatment programmes can help with mild depression or anxiety?

Micronutrients for Brain Health

24 Jun

Excellent article written by Victoria J Drake and reblogged from the Linus Pauling Institute at

Micronutrients and Cognitive Function


The brain requires a constant supply of micronutrients for energy metabolism of neurons and glial cells, neurotransmitter synthesis and action, nerve impulse propagation, and homocysteine metabolism. (More Information)
Deficiencies in various micronutrients, especially the B vitamins, have adverse effects on cognition. (More Information)
The developing brain may be particularly vulnerable to deficiencies in choline and essential fatty acids. (More Information)
Due to conflicting studies, more research in needed to determine whether micronutrient supplementation affects attention-related cognitive functions. (More Information)
Presently, there is little evidence that supplementation with B vitamins, antioxidant vitamins, choline, or omega-3 fatty acids will improve memory performance. (More Information)
More research is needed to determine whether micronutrient supplementation has any effects on executive functioning (i.e., higher-order cognitive processes). (More Information)
Some, but not all, studies have reported that micronutrient supplementation improves overall mood and psychological well-being. (More Information)
It is not yet clear whether supplementation with B vitamins, antioxidants, or omega-3 fatty acids protects against age-related cognitive decline. (More Information)
Several methodological issues (e.g., tests used to assess cognition, choice of study population, nature of the supplementation, study duration, etc.) may have contributed to the conflicting results observed in intervention studies. (More Information)

Good nutritional status is important for proper brain development and maintenance of normal cognitive function (1). Through unique biological functions, various micronutrients affect brain function. This article discusses the roles of key micronutrients, including the B vitamins, antioxidant vitamins, and certain essential minerals, in cognitive function. When appropriate, research on the role of other compounds, such as essential fatty acids and choline, is also presented. The cognitive effects of micronutrient deficiencies are discussed, and the effects of micronutrient supplementation on the broad areas of attention, memory, executive functions, mood, as well as age-related cognitive decline are covered.

Basic Needs for Cognitive Performance

Energy Metabolism of Neurons and Glial Cells

The human brain is a highly metabolically active tissue that depends on a constant supply of glucose to meet its energy needs. In fact, the brain accounts for approximately 25% of total body glucose utilization at rest, despite representing only 2% of adult body weight (2, 3). Blood glucose levels must be maintained at all times to avoid hypoglycemia and to supply the brain with its preferential fuel. During the initial stages of fasting, blood glucose levels are maintained through the breakdown of liver glycogen and then through the process of gluconeogenesis—the production of glucose from non-carbohydrate precursors, such as amino acids. The B vitamin biotin is required for a key enzyme in the gluconeogenic pathway (4). While glucose is the obligatory fuel, ketone bodies can also be used by the brain when glucose supply is inadequate, such as during prolonged fasting or starvation. However, ketone bodies are acidic, and very high levels of these compounds in the blood are toxic and may result in ketoacidosis (5). Thus, glucose is the preferred and normal energy substrate of the brain.

Glucose oxidation in the brain requires certain micronutrients as cofactors. For instance, forms of several B vitamins, including thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and pantothenic acid, as well as the compound lipoic acid, are utilized in reactions that completely metabolize glucose to carbon dioxide and water (3). Additionally, the nutritionally essential minerals, magnesium, iron, and manganese are required for the complete metabolism of glucose; these micronutrients are utilized as cofactors, substrates, or components of enzymes in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle (6, 7). Moreover, generation of cellular energy in the form of ATP by the electron transport chain requires the vitamins, riboflavin and niacin; iron contained in iron-sulfur clusters; and the endogenously synthesized compound, coenzyme Q10 (8).

Cerebral Blood Supply

At rest, the brain receives approximately 15% of cardiac output (9). Proper cerebral blood supply is necessary to deliver oxygen, glucose and other macronutrients, and the required micronutrients for proper cognitive function. Nutrition has a role in maintaining optimal blood supply to the brain. For instance, insufficiency of several dietary components increases the risk of developing stroke, a pathological condition that results from impaired cerebral blood supply; see the Disease Index for examples.

Neurotransmitter Synthesis

A neurotransmitter is a chemical released from a nerve cell that transmits an impulse to another nerve cell or an effector cell, such as a muscle cell. Neurotransmitters have either excitatory or inhibitory effects; the type of effect is dependent on the receptor on the receiving cell (10). Neurotransmitters can be broadly divided into two main classes: small amino acids (e.g., gamma aminobutyric acid [GABA], glutamate, aspartate, and glycine) and biogenic amines (e.g., dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, serotonin, histamine, and acetylcholine) (11).

In addition to various amino acids, several B vitamins, including thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, and vitamin B12, are needed as cofactors for the synthesis of neurotransmitters. Moreover, vitamin C is required for synthesis of norepinephrine (3), and the mineral zinc is important for proper function of GABA, aspartate, and norepinephrine (12). Further, choline is a precursor for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (13).

Neurotransmitter Binding to Receptors

Neurotransmitters function by binding to receptors on the cell membrane of the neuron releasing the neurotransmitter (i.e., presynaptic neuron) or to receptors on the cell membrane of the receiving cell (i.e., the postsynaptic neuron). Receptor binding can either mediate the opening of ion channels or cause metabolic changes within the cell (3, 14). Specifically, direct action on ion channels results from neurotransmitter binding to receptor sites on the membrane of postsynaptic neurons. This binding causes the gate-like ion channels to open, which allows ions to flow into the cell (10). Influx of positively charged ions into the postsynaptic neuron can have excitatory effects by depolarizing the membrane; membrane depolarization can cause a nerve impulse or action potential if a certain threshold is reached within the neuron. This is commonly referred to as “neuronal firing.” In contrast, influx of negatively charged ions can have inhibitory effects by hyperpolarizing the membrane and thus preventing neuronal firing (15). In addition to direct effects on ion channels, neurotransmitters may bind to G-protein coupled receptors, thereby eliciting cell-signaling effects that could result in metabolic changes (e.g., alterations in activity of various enzymes) within a postsynaptic cell (14).

Vitamins could possibly influence binding of neurotransmitters to postsynaptic receptors. For instance, an in vitro study showed that two forms of vitamin B6, pyridoxal and pyridoxal phosphate, inhibited the binding of GABA to postsynaptic receptors (16). Also, a rat study associated vitamin B6 deficiency during fetal development and lactation with changes in the number and binding of dopamine receptors (17).

Nerve Impulse Propagation

The speed at which nerve impulses (action potentials) are propagated is influenced by the myelination of the nerve (18). Myelination refers to the process in which nerves acquire a myelin sheath—the insulating layer of tissue made up of lipids and proteins that surrounds nerve fibers. This sheath acts as a conduit in an electrical system, allowing rapid and efficient transmission of nerve impulses (10).

Certain micronutrients can affect the propagation of nerve impulses. In particular, adequate intake of both folate and vitamin B12 is important in maintaining the integrity of the myelin sheath, and thiamin is needed for maintenance of the nerve’s membrane potential and for proper nerve conductance (3). Additionally, iron has an important role in the development of oligodendrocytes, the cells in the brain that produce myelin (19).

Homocysteine Metabolism

Homocysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid that is an intermediate in the metabolism of another sulfur-containing amino acid, methionine. Elevated homocysteine levels in the blood (i.e., hyperhomocysteinemia) may be a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and could also be linked to dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (20, 21). The amount of homocysteine in the blood is regulated by at least three vitamins: folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 (see diagram). Additionally, the nutrient choline is also involved in homocysteine metabolism. The choline metabolite, betaine, can also provide a methyl group for the conversion of homocysteine to methionine.

Why Mentally Ill are having their Physical Health neglected by Doctors

24 Jun

Patients with severe mental illnesses tragically die approximately 20 years earlier then the average citizen.
There are numerous causes for this as detailed below.

Reblogged from

Summer Forum 2013 – John Allan – Putting practice in place for healthy living for people with mental illness
Feb 25th, 2013 by HamishH
John Allan is the Chief Psychiatrist of NSW and presented on the topic of implementing healthy living practices with people with mental illness.

John argued for the importance of setting clear and simple targets which are achievable and relevant to people with mental health problems.

John looked back the history of psychiatry and asked how far have we actually come? For example, life expectancy for people with serious mental illness was about the same as the life expectancy of the general population in 1910, now it is over 20 years less than the life expectancy for the general Australian population.

John reflected on the policy/practice divide… so what are the barriers for mental health consumers accessing physical health care?


Inaccessibility of services and distance to services
Social isolation
Interpersonal barriers

Mental health care providers often do not ask about physical health care
Lack of information
An attitude from  service providers that it’s “not my problem”
Participants in studies in this area had a good awareness of the range of options in the community but clinicians often didn’t
Other barriers

Poor coordination between physical and mental health care providers
Diagnostic overshadowing: patients are “seen to be faking” – people feel they have to hide mental illness to get service, or act in ways that do get them service but that have them labelled as “attention seeking”
Lack of engagement is often seen by clinicians as being due to mental illness when it may be practical everyday things that get in the way
Symptoms of mental health disorders themselves make communication difficult
Disrespectful, non-caring behaviour by both mental health and general clinicians
Having no advocate
Feeling powerless
Ambivalence – too often we accept the persons view that they are stigmatised and the result is that we don’t meet their health needs met
What tools to we have to address these issues?

Recovery-oriented practice: the National recovery-oriented mental health practice framework

“Starting with the initial assumption that personal recovery is different for everyone, ‘personal recovery’ is defined within this Framework as being able to live well and to build and live the life one chooses in the presence or absence of mental ill health”

John also argued that clinicians will have more influence by “giving up” coercive power-assertive tactics, both over colleagues and consumers/patients.

John suggested making people with severe mental illness a special target for all governments, with specific, hard indicators of success. With these few simple indicators, practice and policy will shift to meet them.

Reduce smoking rates to general population levels
Reductions in average HBA1C concentrations to less than 7% among consumers with severe mental illness (HBA1C is a form of haemoglobin that gives a measure of the average concentration of glucose in the blood over a long period of time)
Increase of cancer treatment rates to the level in the general population
Education and awareness and training: for example enabling all psychiatrists to prescribe statins
 John suggested a number of steps that will help:

Adopt a recovery paradigm
Target for peer support workers
Equal go for people with severe mental illness in the NDIS
Self-management, life coaching, advocacy
Further information and resources 

The Concord Centre for Cardiometabolic Health in Psychosis

The National recovery-oriented mental health practice framework