Archive | July, 2013

Organic Masquerades- B12 Deficiency mimicking Schizophrenia or Depression

21 Jul

Vitamin B12 deficiency is known to cause Neuropsychiatric symptoms, however in some instances, the presentation is purely Psychiatric without obvious Neurological symptoms.
The presence of an atypical psychosis and/or with cognitive loss,or Psychiatric symptoms in a Vegetarian,should prompt further investigations.
These symptoms can easily be misdiagnosed as Schizophrenia or Depression if the physician is not alert regarding possible “organic” causes.

The below studies highlight Vitamin B12 deficiency and behavioural symptoms.

http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=16227
http://www.annalsoflongtermcare.com/content/vitamin-b12-and-psychiatric-illness

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Terms used in Neuropsychology

13 Jul

acquired alexia-
 
loss of reading ability in a previously literate person

agnosia-
 
loss of ability to recognize objects, persons, sounds, shapes, or smells in spite of intact…

allocentric neglect-
 
consistent processing errors on one side of individual stimuli (either right or left) ….

amnesia-
 
General term for loss of memory.

angular gyrus-
 
a region of cortex on the temporal/parietal border roughly equivalent to Brodmann’s area 39….

anomia-
 
inability to name objects or items

anosognosia-
 
A condition in which a person who suffers impairment following brain damage seems unaware of the neurological deficits (lacking insight)..

anterior cingulate-
 
A midline frontal

Antegrade amnesia-
 
a form of memory loss where new events are not stored in long-term memory

Aphasia-
 
deficit in the production and/or comprehension of language

Apraxia-
 
the inability to carry out certain motor acts on instruction without evident loss of muscle…

Arborial structure-
 
the branching pattern of neuronal dendrites

Arcuate fasciculus-
 
fibre bundle connecting Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas in the brain

Astereognosis-
 
an agnosic condition in which objects cannot be recognized by touch alone.

axon-
 
long, thin projection from a neuron that carries electrical impulses from the cell body

Brainstem-
 
the lower part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord

Brodmann area-
 
a region of the cortex defined on the basis of cytoarchitecture

Cerebellum-
 
a region at the basis of the brain that is important in sensory and motor functions

Cerebral cortex-
 
the outer surface of the brain which has, in higher mammals, a creased and bumpy….

Conduction aphasia-
 
aphasia in which the principal deficit is an inability to repeat spoken word

Diaschisis-
 
sudden loss of function in a region of the brain connected to, but at a distance from, a damaged…

Disconnection-
 
the general term for a group of disorders thought to be caused by damage to a pathway between.

Divergence-
 
in the nervous system, the principle that because axons may branch many times, a single..

Egocentric neglect-
 
consistent errors to one side of the viewer (right or left)

Epilepsy-
 
the term for a group of neurological disorders characterized by synchronized by excessive neuronal…

Equipotentiality-
 
the term associated with Lashley, broadly meaning that any region of cortex can assume responsibility…

Excito-toxicity-
 
the process causing neuronal death

Fluent aphasia-
 
another name for Wernicke’s aphasia. Language is fluent but nonsensical

Gyri-
 
elongated bumps (convexities) in the cortex (singular: gyrus)

Hemiparesis-
 
partial or complete loss of movement in one side of the body

Autoimmune Schizophrenia

13 Jul

Schizophrenia shares many similarities with Autoimmune disorders,such as low Vitamin D levels,and autoantibodies to the brain have been found in some people who have previously received a diagnosis of Schizophrenia.
Unfortunately,these findings are not well known,neither to lay people or medical practitioners, including Immunologists,possibly due to the stigma of Schizophrenia producing a disinterest in research into this illness and a disbelief that there could be an organic (physical) cause to an illness that produces such severe brain and behavioural symptoms.
The below list of blogs have interesting information regarding Schizophoenia as an Autoimmune Disease in some people.

http://www.elaine-moore.com/Articles/AutoimmuneDiseases/AutoimmuneDiseaseandSchizophrenia/tabid/218/Default.aspx

http://evolutionarypsychiatry.blogspot.com.au/2013/01/is-schizophrenia-autoimmune-disease.html?m=1

B12 deficiency and Psychiatric and Neurological disorders

1 Jul

Chris Kresser has written a great article on the connection between Vitamin B12 deficiency and Neurological and Mental Illnesses…

http://chriskresser.com/b12-deficiency-a-silent-epidemic-with-serious-consequences#